There was no Big Bang!?

Snap Crackle Pop

An alternative theory of the Cosmos
Peter van Bemmel
In 1949 the famous astrophysicist Fred Hoyle used the term “Big Bang” to ridicule the theory first proposed by George Lemaître and later embraced by Albert Einstein, although Einstein first agreed with Hoyle and De Sitter supporting a steady state model. The Big Bang theory implies that our universe started as an extremely dense mass all balled together in an Uratom, literally the original or first atom from which all else sprang. This ball exploded with a Big Bang that initially formed plasma of elementary particles such as we create today in the large particle accelerators (Fermi lab and the Large Hadron collider). The plasma was as hot as the sun and light could not escape from it until it had cooled enough for protons and neutrons to form. From then on those particles combined to generate hydrogen and helium, stars, planets and galaxies, all the while expanding and filling the void.

credit: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/J.Warren & J.Hughes et al.
The Big Bang may have looked somewhat like Tycho's Supernova

The theory explained phenomena such as the red shift in the spectral lines of different stars and galaxies which all appear to speed away from us, the farther away they are the faster they go.

However, there are a number of difficulties associated with the theory that require awkward explanations. One example is that we see celestial objects at distances of more than 13 billion light years. A light year is the distance light travels in one year or approximately 6 trillion miles. The image we receive therefore has to have traveled for 13 billion years and shows us the object as it was 13 billion years ago, close to the postulated age of the universe. How then can this object have been that far away right after the Big Bang? Another example is the apparent insufficient abundance of mass to explain the total gravitational forces keeping our galaxies together. To explain this, dark matter was invented, a substance that neither emits nor absorbs light and has not been directly detected. Yet another example is that the celestial objects seem to recede at an accelerated speed, something that is not possible without external forces. This led to the concept of dark energy, also invisible to us and undetectable.

Lastly, there is the question what happened before the Big Bang: where did the matter come from that led to it. Was there an earlier explosive event that expanded and then collapsed back to its origin under the influence of the collective gravity from all the stars and galaxies in that earlier universe? This question has led to the model of an oscillating or cyclic universe in which the universe repeatedly starts with a big bang, followed by expansion, then contraction and a big crunch. This theory has been discredited from a thermodynamic viewpoint, because it violates the second law stating that entropy (state of chaos) cannot decrease. Moreover this Big Bang is unique, because the speed of the expansion is increasing with time; there does not seem to be enough gravity to make our universe collapse again.

SCP multibang like fireworks in the sky

Here we will look at the arguments supporting the Big Bang. We will highlight the obstacles to the theory, and discuss solutions that have been proposed to overcome those difficulties, and finally we will propose a different scenario. Instead of having a beginning with ONE Big Bang, smaller explosions and conflagrations happened over time and throughout space, rather like the snap-crackle-pop you hear when pouring milk over your Rice Krispies. The new theory does away with a number of awkward explanations yet still fits the observations we have made of the cosmos we live in. It will also obviate the question of what happened before the Big Bang.
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© Peter van Bemmel

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