In 1949 the famous astrophysicist Fred Hoyle used the term “Big Bang” to ridicule the theory first proposed
by George Lemaître and later embraced by Albert Einstein, although Einstein first agreed with Hoyle and De
Sitter supporting a steady state model. The Big Bang theory implies that our universe started as an extremely
dense mass all balled together in an Uratom, literally the original or first atom from which all else sprang.
This ball exploded with a Big Bang that initially formed plasma of elementary particles such as we create
today in the large particle accelerators (Fermi lab and the Large Hadron collider). The plasma was as hot as
the sun and light could not escape from it until it had cooled enough for protons and neutrons to form. From
then on those particles combined to generate hydrogen and helium, stars, planets and galaxies, all
the while expanding and filling the void.
credit: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/J.Warren & J.Hughes et al.
The Big Bang may have looked somewhat like Tycho's Supernova
The theory explained phenomena such as the red shift in the spectral lines of different stars and galaxies
which all appear to speed away from us, the farther away they are the faster they go.
However, there are a number of difficulties associated with the theory that require awkward explanations. One
example is that we see celestial objects at distances of more than 13 billion light years. A light year is the
distance light travels in one year or approximately 6 trillion miles. The image we receive therefore has to
have traveled for 13 billion years and shows us the object as it was 13 billion years ago, close to the
postulated age of the universe. How then can this object have been that far away right after the Big Bang?
Another example is the apparent insufficient abundance of mass to explain the total gravitational forces
keeping our galaxies together. To explain this, dark matter was invented, a substance that neither emits nor
absorbs light and has not been directly detected. Yet another example is that the celestial objects seem to
recede at an accelerated speed, something that is not possible without external forces. This led to the
concept of dark energy, also invisible to us and undetectable.
Lastly, there is the question what happened before the Big Bang: where did the matter come from that led to it.
Was there an earlier explosive event that expanded and then collapsed back to its origin under the influence
of the collective gravity from all the stars and galaxies in that earlier universe? This question has led to
the model of an oscillating or cyclic universe in which the universe repeatedly starts with a big bang,
followed by expansion, then contraction and a big crunch. This theory has been discredited from a
thermodynamic viewpoint, because it violates the second law stating that entropy (state of chaos) cannot
decrease. Moreover this Big Bang is unique, because the speed of the expansion is increasing with time; there
does not seem to be enough gravity to make our universe collapse again.
SCP multibang like fireworks in the sky
Here we will look at the arguments supporting the Big Bang. We will highlight the obstacles to the theory, and
discuss solutions that have been proposed to overcome those difficulties, and finally we will propose a
different scenario. Instead of having a beginning with ONE Big Bang, smaller explosions and conflagrations
happened over time and throughout space, rather like the snap-crackle-pop you hear when pouring milk over your
Rice Krispies. The new theory does away with a number of awkward explanations yet still fits the observations
we have made of the cosmos we live in. It will also obviate the question of what happened before the Big Bang.