The Snap Crackle Pop Model
What is this new theory exactly? The Snap-Crackle-Pop (SCP) model proposes that rather than our Universe
starting at a given time zero, 13.8 billion years ago (current estimate 13.772), with a big conflagration,
groups of galaxies have been formed
all along and are still being formed in an ongoing string of smaller explosions.
In this model each set of galaxies is
a mini universe with a beginning and an end. For instance nearby galaxies 1 Zwicky 18, 59 mly
away and DDO 68, 39 mly are estimated to have formed some 500 million to 1 billion years ago from cosmic matter. This matter
is dust, hydrogen and helium resulting
from the supernova blasts and subsequent disintegration from stars and presumably planets as well. Our own
Milky Way is between 10 and 13 billion years of age and
will probably cease to exist as a galaxy after all the stars have burned out and
become supernovas. In the supernova stage they cast off the luminous outer shell as a cloud of gas. The cores
become massive neutron stars. For bigger stars the core becomes a black hole. No light will escape from the
remnants until a new galaxy is formed and history repeats itself.
Each galaxy is trying to fill the void called space under negative vacuum energy, while keeping together all
its stars and planets as a result of the local gravitational field of all matter in the galaxy. Because the
distance between the galaxies increases in order to fill space, they generally fly away from each other at
relative speeds that increase with distance.
Our field of vision and the horizon limiting that field are determined by the point beyond which galaxies
would recede with speeds greater than that of light. Electromagnetic radiation from those galaxies cannot
This horizon lies at 13.8 billion light-years or roughly 80 billion trillion miles (that is an 8 followed by
22 zeros). We have no way of knowing what lies beyond this horizon. Most likely it is filled with galaxies
like the ones we observe from Earth.
Recently dark galaxies have been reported by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the
Southern Hemisphere (ESO). The galaxies were detected at a distance of 11 billion light-years by making use
of the bright UV light from quasar HE0109-3518, in the middle of the image (circled in red). It is thought that
light from the quasar is reflected off the dark galaxies (circled in blue) much like sunlight makes our moon
visible at night.
Another effect that makes these galaxies visible may be ionization of the gas clouds in those galaxies by UV
light from the quasar. In the SCP model these dark galaxies are the end stage of the galaxy evolution. All
stars have completed the fusion process and are burnt out. Ultimately they will disintegrate and become part
of the collection of space junk that forms the building material for new galaxies.
Credit: ESO Digitized Sky Survey 2 and S. Cantalupo (UCSC)
And so the process goes on. Galaxies are born, burn out, disintegrate and return to star dust from which new
galaxies are born.
All this would happen regardless of the singular Big Bang theory.
But what if we could do away with Inflation,
Dark Energy, the Horizon Problem and the Lost Time
problem? According to the Snap Crackle Pop model we can:
This new model of the universe, assuming a more continuous emergence of matter, is supported by the fact that
stars are born even today in different galaxies, including our own. Those star bursts can be observed
throughout our visible universe at different distances and therefore from different times (the time it takes
for each image to reach us is called the look back time and it corresponds to the distance in light
It is also supported by the fact that the oldest supernovas and galaxies are seen very close to
the time of the supposed time zero of the Big Bang. Those galaxies should have been born billions of years
before the big explosion.
- Inflation and the Big Bang are no longer necessary. Rather than matter blowing away from a central point
at superluminal speeds, galaxies are born in space where we see their image today.
- Dark Energy is not needed: supernovae with anomalous recession speeds come from separate events (Little
- The Horizon Problem goes away, because cosmic microwave energy is generated throughout the universe.
- There is no Lost Time problem, because the objects we see near our horizon were indeed created long
before the time of the Big Bang.
- Large Structures are explained as the result of interference from a series of smaller bangs at various
locations in the universe.
- There is no Singularity, but rather an ongoing process - no beginning - no end.
If Lawrence Krauss is right and matter can be formed spontaneously in vacuum, why would that happen only once
at the time of the Big Bang? Why could it not happen in the places where we see the farthest galaxies (and
everywhere in between)? The hot energy would have sizzled and popped all over the place like the star cluster
bombs of great fireworks. The energy cooled off, just like in the currently accepted model, forming Hydrogen
atoms and maybe some Lithium, and starting accretion into stars and galaxies on the spot.
Such a scheme could also explain why there are so many colliding galaxies. Although the universe is generally
spreading out to fill the infinite vacuum, a central explosion would make collisions much more an exception
rather than a significant rule.
This leaves the question of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. It is studied in great detail and
sophisticated computer programs have analyzed it, and decided that it happened 13.772 billion light years ago.
It also evaluates and confirms almost all the parameters of the Big Bang- Lambda Cold Dark Matter model.
Admittedly the fact that the radiation is seen all the way around us, and shows the same characteristics,
needs an explanation. I propose that this radiation actually fills the universe and is present as a result of
smaller bangs distributed over time. After all, we know that our own Milky Way emits similar radiation and
that it must be filtered out from the WMAP observations before we can map the CMB. Is the distance to the
horizon of our observable universe 13.772 billion light-years or is that the limit of visibility?
Or anything beyond this horizon would have a recessional speed of more than the speed of light and is therefore
undetectable to us.
Lawrence Krauss predicts a “miserable future” for us. There will be a time at which all moving galaxies have
left the visible universe. Our descendants still occupying the Milky Way will see only the stars bound to it
by gravity. There will be no detectible proof of an expanding universe and the Big Bang preceding it. If
however his theory of an unstable vacuum in which matter pops up is right, new galaxies should be born to
fill the space round us. This is an essential part of our new theory.
Is there a beginning? Was there a moment in time before which there was only empty space? Was there a point
at which the first elementary particles popped up and started to interact? Perhaps, but long before the
presumed time of the Big Bang interstellar matter existed and became organized into stars, planets and
galaxies. After all stars in the galaxy had burned out and briefly became supernovae, only interstellar dust
and gas was left. Then, in this soup, new stars were born and a new galaxy was formed with a snap, crackle
Maybe this is after all the steady state process as Fred Hoyle and Willem de Sitter envisioned and one day,
long after Earth is gone there will be another livable planet in another galaxy with life that does not need
a minimum wage to survive…
The Snap Crackle Pop Model of the Universe
Finally: an overview of the SCP model of the cosmos.
Looking back from our position in the Milky Way we first see the Andromeda galaxy barreling down on us.
Further back in distance and time we see other galaxies, nebulas, quasars, dark galaxies and at the end the
Cosmic Microwave Background. Each of those objects is moving away from us at ever greater speeds until 99.9999
percent of the velocity of light. Any radiation emitted from objects beyond this limit cannot reach us.
Most of the galaxies we see originated from our "local bang", which may have happened 13.75 billionn years ago.
They were formed at different times and at different places, after which
they began the journey to a location where the image was released that hits our eyes today. Some of those
galaxies lived and died to become dark galaxies or even supermassive black holes and quasars. Others were at
full bloom when we last saw them and are still hurtling on in space driven by the energy of the surrounding
Credit: Debra Meloy Elmegreen (Vassar College) et al.,& the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)
Galaxies NGC2207 and IC2163 colliding 80 million lightyears away
As one would expect from the SCP model, where there is not one single origin, not all galaxies should be
redshifted. Indeed some galaxies and quasars have instead a blue shift. They are called blue outliers because
they do not fit the Big Bang theory. The quasar PG 1543+489 has a blue shift velocity of -1150 km/s and is
in our direction fast. I believe that colliding and blue shifted galaxies and quasars rather support the SCP
Those galaxies, colliding galaxies and the ones whose birth dates are preceding the Big Bang date originated
from the snaps, crackles and pops of our new model.
How can we prove any of this?
One experiment that comes to mind is to solve the centricity problem. If there was a big bang and the Cosmic
Microwave Background is the remnant of the original blast we should not be precisely in the center. We should
be closer to the edge of the CMB in a certain direction and farther away in the opposite. If the radiation is
spreading from the point of the original blast it should be less intense the farther away it is. Such a
difference in intensity has not been reported.
Another experiment would be to investigate the Supernova Cosmology Project allowing for multiple points of
would be interesting to try and estimate the date and place back in time for each of the clusters detected in
this experiment. We might then be able to make a prognosis when and where the next pop will happen. What a
show that will be!!!